- Dry (preferably wool) clothing. If you get wet from rain, snow or sweat, change into clothing that is dry. Wet clothing loses its insulation value and extracts body heat 240 times faster than dry clothing. Wool clothing and blankets are preferred. Cotton clothing, particularly denim, retains water. Wool clothing is insulating, water resistant and keeps your body warm even if it is wet.
- Hats, mittens (warmer than gloves). Covering your head is vital as you can lose up to 80% of your body heat through your head. A knitted wool stocking hat is good.
- Insulated boots or shoes. Feet can be kept warm by wearing wool socks and wearing two pair if your shoes are large enough. A towel could also be wrapped over shoes and duct-taped on.
- Layered clothing. Several thin layers of loose-fitting clothing retain body heat and can be removed easily if body starts to perspire and/or you are chilling. Water and wind resistant outer clothing with a hood. Also, scarf or towel to cover your mouth to keep cold air from your lungs.
- Sleeping bags. Two or more people huddled together inside two sleeping bags zipped together will be warmer than each in separate sleeping bags. A smaller bag can also be placed inside a larger one.
- Car heater. If trapped in your car during a snowstorm, run heater 10 minutes every hour. Make sure the exhaust pipe is not blocked by snow and open one window a crack to allow ventilation.
- Mylar blankets or emergency bags. Good in wind or rain. Put a wool blanket between you and the Mylar blanket, if possible.
- Survival candles, safety heat(in can), hand warmers.
- Rice or bean filled packs (or socks filled with rice/beans & tied) that have been heated perhaps in a can in a fir or coals. They will maintain heat for a period of time. Rocks or bricks can also be heated thoroughly, then carefully wrapped in towels or newspapers.
- Thermal undergarments.
- Insulated Clothing: Open cell foam rubber (1/2"), Leaves, newspaper, straw, etc. (Stuffed between 2 layers of clothing) Tie your shoe laces around the cuffs of your pants to hold material in. If you were trapped in a car during a snowstorm, use stuffing from the seat cushions.
- Plastic garbage bag. Can be worn as a rain jacket or can insulate body if stuffed with dry leaves or grass.
HEATING INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AREAS
You will need matches (waterproof or metal,) steel wool and batteries or lighters to start a fire.
- Wood or coal for use in fireplace or wood burning stove
- One room: have all family members stay in one room closing off other rooms) to conserve heat source and to provide body warmth for each other.
- Fire pits
- Dig a hole (about 2 feet X 4 feet) put some rocks in and build a fire in it. When it's out cover the hole with dirt. The area will stay warm for quite some time. You can put your sleeping bag over the area.
- Snow cave. Use a shovel or empty large can, etc, to build. Make it large enough to lie down in and elevate the sleeping area above the floor area for extra warmth. Poke air holes in ceiling (larger ones if building a fire or lighting a stove) and close off entrance with snow, back pack, etc. Put insulation under your sleeping bag such as leaves, grass, straw, newspaper, etc. and cover with plastic. Wear a wool cap to bed.
- Shelter. Use a tarp, plastic sheet, or space blanket to build a lean-to by draping over a low-hanging branch or tall stick and anchoring with rocks or logs.
- Cave, rock cove or rock wall. Find a natural shelter protected from the wind and insulate ground with leaves and branches. Building a fire will create an oven effect as it reflects off the rock faces.